Hematology is the study of blood and blood disorders. Hematologists and hematopathologists are highly trained healthcare providers who specialize in diseases of the blood and blood components. These include blood and bone marrow cells. Hematology is the science or study of blood, blood-forming organs and blood diseases. In the medical field, hematology includes the treatment of blood disorders and malignancies, including types of hemophilia, leukemia, and lymphoma and sickle-cell anemia. Hematology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with the physiology, pathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of blood-related disorders. Hematologists focus largely on lymphatic organs and bone marrow and may diagnose blood count irregularities or platelet irregularities.
Clinical pathology (Medical Laboratory) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of body fluids, such as blood, urine etc.
Diagnostic Clinical Biochemistry uses biochemical knowledge and techniques to assist in the diagnosis of human disease, to follow its progress and to monitor the effect of treatment. The scope of investigations varies from assessment of organ function and endocrine glands to therapeutic drug monitoring. Clinical biochemistry refers to the analysis of the blood plasma (or serum) for a wide variety of substances—substrates, enzymes, hormones, etc—and their use in diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Analysis of other body fluids (eg, urine, ascitic fluids, CSF) is also included. Measurement of blood glucose (sugar) and lipids (fats) are among the commonly performed tests in the biochemistry laboratory. Panels of tests can be used to assess the function of major body organs such as the liver, kidneys and heart.
Diagnostic method that relies on antigen-antibody reaction foir detection of tghe disease. Immunologic methods are used as tools in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and immune- mediated diuseases.
Microbiology & Serology
Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to these agents. Blood samples for the presence of viral and bacterial antigens and antibodies (IgG and IgM), to help diagnose diseases and check immune status, are tested within Serology.